Dumped in natural reservoirs production and utility fluids change quantity and quality of water in them, complicate or at all exclude possibility of use of reservoirs for drinking or proizvodchtvenno-technical needs.
Pollution by oil products of sewage causes diverse and profound changes as a part of water biocenoses and even in all fauna and flora of reservoirs. It is caused by physical and chemical properties of the oil which is very difficult on the structure and can give to substance water in various aggregate states: firm, liquid, gaseous. The part of its components settles on a bottom, the part is in a type of suspensions and emulsions in the thickness of water. and part - in molekulyarno the dissolved state.
The polluted environment can negatively influence "recipients" (people, industrial, transport and housing-and-municipal facilities, agricultural grounds, the woods, reservoirs, etc.). These negative impacts are shown generally in increase of incidence of people and deteriorations of their vital conditions, in decrease in efficiency of biological natural resources, accelerations of wear of buildings, constructions and the equipment. Due to the above it is possible to allocate the following groups of expenses: the expenses directed on prevention of harmful effects of the polluted okrukhayushchy environment on recipients, and the expenses caused by this influence.
Modern control methods of the chemicals polluting environment is in fact Physical and chemical methods. Sometimes they are united the term "tool methods of the analysis". This subject is huge therefore we will consider only the most important of physical and chemical methods which are optimum combining a number the kachestv:vysoky accuracy and reproducibility of results of the analysis, high sensitivity and, despite these strict requirements, availability of the equipment and possibility of its fast development.
Now process of miniaturization of electronic schemes reached molecular level, doing real completely automated, with the comprehensive software, difficult multi-purpose and at the same time compact, completely autonomous systems of tracking quality of environment in the closed space.
Gas chromatography. The basis for a method of a gas chromatography it is following : to mix of substances as a result of distribution of components between indelible phases one of which the mobile - inert gas (nitrogen, helium, etc.), another-motionless (the high-boiling liquid or firm phases.